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PTSD初中生留意倾向的试验研讨

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【中文摘要】:

【中文摘要】创伤后应激障碍(Post Traumatic Stress Disorder,简称PTSD),是焦急障碍的一种,指突发性、威胁性或灾害性生涯事件发生后数日至6个月内所呈现的个体延迟和长期连续存在的精神或心理障碍。简而言之,PTSD是一种创伤后心理失平衡状况。发生的概率与创伤性事件的类型有关,交通事故、洪灾、火灾、地震等受害者的PTSD发生率为38.27%~18.8%。512地震中,13亿中国人顷刻间汇聚起来,这种爱的力量让人无法忘却,如今灾害已经由去,灾后的重建工作如火如荼,同时须要重建的还有我们受到创伤的心灵。依据创伤后应激障碍的心理动力学模式理论,Freud认为面对突发事件时,人们去去会情不自禁地应用一系列防备机制,在认知上对现实入行调整和重组,以到达坚持身心平衡的目的。但如果突发事件的不良后果超越心理防备机制的应对才能,就不可避免地会呈现身心失衡的状况。良多研讨表明,阅历过统一危机事件的PTSD患者与非PTSD患者比拟对负情感信息有更多的留意倾向。Erikson认为如果个体能有效地将创伤入行认知重构,心理危机就能得以解决。然而,不论海内仍是国外,关于PTSD的研讨大都侧重于临床心理学范畴,关注于对PTSD个体的诊断和治疗,但对于为治疗和干预提供理论支持的PTSD个体的认知特色的研讨却较少。因此本研讨针对PTSD患者留意倾向这一认知特色的做了相关研讨,以期能够揭示PTSD患者的认知机制,使临床心理学家能有针对性地为PTSD个体设计有效的治疗策略,为临床心理学范畴对PTSD的治疗和干预提供理论依据和实践指点。本研讨首先采取PTSD检讨表平时版筛选试验被试,依据量表得分划分出高下PTSD两组被试。接着针对PTSD个体是否存在留意倾向的题目,采取改编而成的点探测义务使用威胁性、正性中性三类词语作为刺激资料来考察这一题目。如果PTSD个体对三类词语的反映时差异显明,则说明高PTSD个体存在留意倾向。最后,针对PTSD个体留意倾向机制的题目,本研讨采取可以同时检测两种留意倾向机制的同中选异义务,义务中分离使用词语和图片两种试验资料来考察这一题目。如果PTSD个体在检测留意警觉性义务中两种试验前提的反映时差异显明,则说明留意倾向的机制是留意警觉;如果PTSD个体在检测留意脱离难题义务中两种试验前提反映时差异显明,则说明留意倾向的机制是留意的脱离难题。在对于试验资料而言,如果两种试验资料所得到的结果不一致,则说明试验资料对同中选异义务能否检测出留意倾向机制有影响。详细试验设计如下。试验一中采取PTSD检讨表平时版(PCL-C)在地震重灾区绵阳市丰谷中学筛选出高下PTSD组被试各22人,筛选出来的有效被试加入依据Macleod的点探测义务改编而成的义务,检测高下PTSD组对情感信息是否存在留意倾向。44名被试做完试验一后,休息10分钟,继承做试验二的义务。试验二采取可以分离检测留意倾向两种机制的同中选异义务,通过对试验资料的改变,在考察PTSD个体留意倾向机制的同时考察试验资料对检测留意倾向机制的影响。详细研讨结果如下:(1) PTSD水平与留意倾向存在一定的关系,高PTSD个体对负性情感信息和正性情感信息都存在留意倾向,低PTSD个体只对正性情感信息表示出留意倾向;(2)高PTSD个体对负性情感信息的留意倾向是一种留意的警觉,即能更快地留意到负性情感信息,高下PTSD个体对正性情感信息的留意倾向是一种留意的滞留,即留意的解除难题;(3)试验资料对同中选异义务能否同时检测出两种留意倾向机制有影响,使用图片资料而非词语资料能同时检测出两种机制。');
【Abstract】 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder(abbreviation is PTSD),which is a kind of anxiety disorder,is the mental or psychological disorder that happens a few days or 6 months after a sudden,threatening or catastrophic life events.In short,it is the psychological disorder after trauma.Its occurrence relate to the type of trauma.The occurrence probability of PTSD after traffic accidents,floods,fires and earthquake is 38.27%~18.8%.In the 512 earthquake,1.3 billion Chinese people gate together at the very moment,and this power of love can not be forget by us.This disaster was finished and post disaster reconstruction work is in full awing.At the same time,the traumatic heart is waiting to be reconstructed.Based on the psychological kinetic theory of PTSD, Freud considered that when we face on emergencies,people always use a series of defense mechanism automatically to adjust and recompose our cognition about realism in order to keep physical and mental balance.If the adverse effects of emergencies go beyond the ability of our defense mechanism,we inevitably will appear physical and mental imbalance.Many studies indicate that PTSD individuals express more attentional bias towards negative information compares to Non-PTSD individuals. Erikson believes that if one can effectively reconstruct trauma,psychological crisis can be solved.This shows that the formation,maintain and aggravation of PTSD is closely related to the characteristics of cognition and attention.Study of the attention bias of PTSD individuals makes clinical psychologists own a better understanding of the cognitive mechanism of PTSD individuals and provides the theoretical basis and practical guidance for the field of clinical psychology.In this study,firstly we adopted PCL-C to screen out experimental subjects,and divided them into high-PTSD and low-PTSD group respectively.Secondly,for the problem of whether PTSD individuals have attentional bias,we used the dot probe task to study it by comparing their to threaten,positive and neutral words.If their reaction time has significant difference,it indicated that PTSD individuals have attentional bias. Finally,to explore the mechanism of attentional bias,we adopted "odd one out" paradigm,which can detect the two mechanism of attentional bias at the same time,to explore this problem.If PTSD individuals has significant difference in the two experiment conditions of attentional facilitate task,it indicated that their attentional bias is facilitate.If PTSD individuals have significant difference in the two experiment conditions of attentional disengagement task,it indicated that their attentional bias is disengagement.For experiment material,if there is any difference of the result for two experiments difference only in two experiment material,it indicated that experiment material had influence in detecting the two mechanism of attentional bias.Specific experiment design is as following.In experiment one,we adopted PCL-C to screen out 22 students for high-PTSD and low-PTSD group respectively in Fenggu High School of Mianyang.The qualified participants were taken part in the dot probe task,which is adopted from Macleod\'s dot probe task,in order to investigate whether PTSD individuals has attention bias towards emotional information.44 participants had a 5 minutes rest after they had finish the first experiment,and then they continued to participate in the second experiment.In experiment one,we adopted "odd one out" paradigm,which can detect two mechanism at the same time,to study the mechanism of attention bias and the effect of experiment material in "odd one out" paradigm by using different experiment material.Specific results are as following.(1) The level of PTSD related to attention bias.High -PTSD group had attention bias to both negative and positive emotional information and Low-PTSD group had attention bias to positive emotional information.(2) The attention bias of High -PTSD group for negative information is facilitation, that is,they can observe negative information quickly.The attention bias of High -PTSD and Low -PTSD group for positive information is disengagement.(3) Experiment material had influence in detecting the two mechanism of attentional bias.Not word but picture used as experiment material can detect two mechanisms at the same time.

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