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基于专题学习网站的准个别化教授教养平台的开发与应用研讨

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【中文摘要】:

【中文摘要】个别化教授教养是一种适合各个学习者不同须要和个性特色的教授教养。长期以来,海内外良多教育者做了大量的研讨和试验,取得了大量宝贵的经验。但因为受到当时科学技术、心理学发铺水平等因素的限制,对个别化教授教养的研讨仍面临着良多题目。题目可归纳为两类:一类题目存在于传统课堂环境下实行的个别化教授教养入程中。因为传统课堂环境在学习信息反馈方面存在速度慢、准确性差、不易存储等不足,致使个别化教授教养难以有效实行。另一类题目是教授教养活动过于夸大盘算机程序的智能决议计划作用,而疏忽教师在指点、组织、管理等方面的作用,导致个别化教授教养成为一种“重学轻教”的教授教养方式。教师的工作主要体现在为学生编制教授教养媒体,或者通过教授教养媒体的程序设计来间接控制教授教养入程。也就是说,教师的个别教授教养只是通过教授教养媒体或程序间接体现出来。这种传布模式体现在教授教养软件的开发制造上,就是呈现大量演示型课件、单机交互式课件、资源型课件(良多学习网站就属此类)等,这样的软件的主要功能是学习资源共享和对学习者的反馈指点,而缺少对教师的反馈,忽略了教师的存在。因为受到心理学发铺水平的限制以及人工智能技术的限制,现阶段还不存在一套切实可行的、适于每位学习者的学习策略,因此应用事先编制好的程序来控制教授教养入程只能是作为一种积极的尝试而不能推广。其教授教养后果可想而知。多媒体网络技术在教授教养中的应用,为把个别化的“教”和自主化的“学”真正落其实课堂提供了机遇。本文通过借鉴已有的个别化教授教养研讨结果,依托学习念头理论、建构主义学习理论、人本主义学习理论、信息加工理论及学习反映信息剖析法等理论和方式,借助多媒体网络技术,对基于专题学习网站的准个别化教授教养平台入行开发和应用研讨。应用该平台入行教授教养,不仅能够通过激发和维持学习念头有效支持学生自主学习、相互协作,而且能够把每个学生的学习反映信息实时反馈给教师,并通过对信息的剖析和统计为教师开铺个别化教授教养提供科学的依据,让教师的个别指点更具针对性。应用该平台入行教授教养,学生是学习的主人,教师是学习的组织者、指点者、辅助者,因此属于“主体主导”的“双主”教授教养范围。教授教养入程中,平台的作用体现在:对教师,它是及时反馈信息的工具,并为教师提供初步的教授教养建议;对学生,它是个不错的辅导员,不仅提供适合学生口味的学习资料,而且时时反馈学习提高情形,督匆匆学生不断绝力入取。应用本平台开铺教授教养,专题学习网站设计的科学性将直接影响到个别化教授教养的科学性和有效性,也影响到学生自主学习的效力。如何入一步增强专题学习网站设计的科学性,将是我继承关注的课题。因此,本文称此种教授教养方式为“准个别化”,意义也在于此。');
【Abstract】 Individualized Teaching is an approach that caters for individual learners and satisfies individual personality. In the past few decades, many educators around the world have carried out lots of researches and experiments and have achieved a great amount of precious experience. However, research on Individualized Teaching has to face many problems since the research is vassalized by the development of science and psychology. The problems may be reduced to two categories:One category lies in the course of traditional classroom individualized teaching. The learning information feedback in a traditional classroom is slow, inaccurate and hard to memorize, which will undoubtedly add to the difficulty of the effective execution of individualized teaching.The other makes individualized teaching an approach that emphasizes learning but neglects teaching. In the teaching and learning process, the role of intellectual decision-*** of computer programs is excessively stressed while that of the teachers in organization, direction and management is overlooked. The teacher spends much time dealing with teaching media or controlling teaching process via means of programming of teaching media. That is to say, the individualized teaching of the teacher is shown indirectly through teaching media or programs. This kind of transmitting mode leads to the come-forth of quantities of demonstrative courseware, stand-alone interactive courseware, resource courseware (many learning websites offer this kind of courseware). These kinds of software mostly function as shared learning resources or feedback directions to learners, neglect of the presence of or the feedback to teachers. Tethered by the development of psychology and artificial intelligence, a set of practical learning strategy suitable for all learners cannot be found anywhere. Therefore, controlling teaching process by means of pre-set programs can be seen only as an active trial but cannot be carried out in a large scale. The teaching results will certainly be beyond expectation.The application of multimedia network technology in teaching offers the chance of individualized teaching and self-study in class. On the basis of theories of learning motivation, constructivism learning, humanistic learning and information processing, by means of learning response information analysis, referring to the existing individualized education research, the author carries through the development and application research on the semi-individualized teaching platform based on special subject learning websites. The teaching on this platform can not only stimulate, sustain students’learning motivation, and effectively support the self-study of and collaboration with each other, but also offer the teachers a real-time feedback of the students’learning responses, the scientific statistics and analysis for a more targeted individualized teaching. In this case, the student becomes the master of learning, while the teacher the organizer, director and helper, *** the teaching a balanced one between the teacher and the student. In the course of teaching, the role of the platform is embodied in: To the teacher, it is a timely feedback tool which may suggest some preliminary recommendations of teaching; To the student, it is a good instructor who not only provides learning materials suited to his or her tastes but also encourages the student continuously by feed backing his or her progress.When adopting this platform in teaching, the scientificity of the design of the special subject learning website will directly affect the scientificity and effectiveness of individualized teaching and the efficiency of the students’self-study. The author will pay close attention to how to enforce the scientificity of the design of the special subject learning website. That is the reason why the author calls the mode Semi-Individualized Teaching.

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本文TAGS: 平台 开发 应用 研讨 教授 专题 学习 网站 个别 基于

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